Sri Svarupa Damodara is the eternal associate of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. His previous name was Sri Purusottama Acarya and he was born at Bhitadia to Padmagarbha Acarya. He lived at Navadvipa.
He was always present with Mahaprabhu. When Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu accepted sannyasa, Svarupa Damodara became like a madman and, journeying to Varanasi he also accepted sannyasa from one sannyasi named Caitanyananda. His sannyasa guru ordered him that, "You should yourself study the Vedanta and also teach it to others." Sri Purusottama Acarya didn't accept the garments of sannyasa, but simply gave up his sikha and brahmana thread. Therefore his name became Svarupa (a brahmacari name). Thereafter, by the order of his guru, he came to Nilacala, where he again met Mahaprabhu.
Though his scholarship was practically unlimited, he spoke very little with others and preferred to remain alone. Thus very few were aware of his actual position. He was completely conversant with the understanding of the mellows of devotion to Sri Krsna and his body was fully imbued with love for Him. He was as though a second Mahaprabhu. Whenever anyone wanted to present to Mahaprabhu some book, verse or song that they had composed, Svarupa Damodara would first hear what they had written before it could be presented to Mahaprabhu. If these compositions contained any points which were in contradiction to the superior position of bhakti, as concluded in scriptures, then hearing these writings would not be a source of transcendental pleasure for Mahaprabhu. Therefore Svarupa Gosai would first examine what had been composed and if it was untainted then it could be presented to Mahaprabhu.
Usually he would recite Sri Gita Govinda, and the writings of Candidasa and Vidyapati, for the transcendental happiness of Mahaprabhu. In music and singing he was like a Gandharva and in knowledge of the sastras he was like Brhaspati. There was no one to compare with him in talent and intelligence. He was extremely dear to Sri Advaita and Nityananda Prabhu and was the life and soul of devotees like Srivasa and others.
When Sri Svarupa Damodara arrived in Puri from Kasi (Varanasi) he recited this sloka in praise of Mahaprabhu: "Oh You, who are the personification of mercy - Sri Caitanya. That which very easily causes grief to retreat far away, and which is spotlessly pure; which causes the appearance of the highest happiness, and by whose appearance disputation over the intricacies of scriptural statements ceases; that which causes the spirit to become extremely agitated in ecstatic love, by a shower of grace and beauty; may that extremely expansive and auspicious mercy by its sweetness and dignity shine its rays upon me." (Sri Caitanya Candrodaya Nataka.)
Seeing that Svarupa Damodara was offering his dandavats to Him, Mahaprabhu picked him up and as He embraced him he said, "I saw in a dream this morning that you had come. Just as a blind man finds unlimited happiness by regaining his eyesight, so I am feeling by regaining your association."
Svarupa Damodara replied: "Prabhu, please forgive me. By leaving You and running off to Varanasi, I made a great mistake. I don't have even a hint of attachment to your lotus feet, and I have actually become a great sinner by leaving you and going to a distant country. I gave up your association, but You didn't give me up. Binding the rope of mercy around my neck You brought me again to Your lotus feet." [CC Madhya 10]
Hearing these words spoken in such humility, Mahaprabhu again embraced him and said: "Krsna is very kind. He has very mercifully brought us together again."
Mahaprabhu kept Svarupa Damodara close to Him. Whenever became immersed in a particular ecstatic emotion, Svarupa Damodara would perform a kirtan in that particular mood. During this period Raya Ramananda also arrived from Vidyanagara in South India. Thus the two of them, Svarupa Damodara and Ramananda Raya, would enhance the ecstatic moods of Mahaprabhu by singing different songs and reciting various poetic verses.
During the day, Mahaprabhu would engage in his pastimes of sankirtan with His devotees, and at night He would taste the mellows of the ecstatic love of Sri Sri Radha-Krsna in the company of these two. As Lalita and Visakha were very intimate with Srimati Radharani, Raya Ramananda and Svarupa Damodara were similarly intimate with Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Mahaprabhu entrusted him to look after and instruct Raghunatha dasa Gosvami.