Wednesday, February 28, 2007

Lord Caitanya

The origin of Lord Caitanya's name is mentioned in CBh. 2.28.179,181: "You aroused everyone's spiritual consciousness (Caitanya) and inspired the entire world to chant the holy name of Krsna, thus Your are called Sri Krsnacaitanya."

According to the Tantra tradition, the term 'Krsnavarna' mentioned in Srimad Bhagavatam refers to Krsnacaitanya. Ramabhadra Vaisnavacarya Gosvami has said, "yasya namadyavayave sah krsnacaitanyah"; just as Satya refers to Satyabhama, and Bhima refers to Bhimasena, similarly the term Krsnavarna indicates Krsnacaitanya (In this connection refer to the tika of the sloka 'sriya savarnena...'Bhagavatam 3.3.3).

Some argue that the name Gauranga was uttered by Kesava Bharati at the time of Lord Gauranga's sannyasa initiation, thus the name 'Gaura' (referring to Him as a resident of Navadvipa) should be considered His foremost name. However this is not rationally tenable when considered from a theological viewpoint. Simply by looking at the titles of the major biographies of the Lord's life (i.e. Caitanya Bhagavata, CC, Caitanyamangala, etc.) it is evident that Sri Krsna Caitanya was His foremost name.

Although Locana Thakura, the preacher of Gauraparatamyavada, dealt with the nama-guna-lila etc. of Gaura in his composition Dhamali, nevertheless the biography he wrote was entitled Sri Caitanyamangala.

Prabodhananda Sarasvati writes about the dhyana of Gauranagaravana in his Sri Caitanyacandramrta (132). In one continuous lila numerous names of the Lord have been mentioned, yet the most frequently used name is Caitanya. Thus we can conclude without any doubt that Caitanya was the foremost name.

For details see the following biographies of Lord Caitanya:

1. Caitanya Bhagavata

2. Caitanya Caritamrta

3. Caitanyamangala

4. Caitanyacaritamahakavya

5. Caitanyacandrodaya

6. Murari Gupta's Kadaca

7. Gaurakrsnodaya

The Gauramantra is mentioned in the following works:

1. Urdhvamnayatantra 3.14-16 (manuscript from the collection of the Madras Oriental Mss. Library)

2. Isanasamhita

3. Paddhati written by Dhyanacandra Gosvami 54-55

4. Sri Caitanyacandrodaya 9

5. Advaitaprakasa 10 and 12

6. CC. 3.2.31

7. Gaurakrsnodaya-mahakavya of 1680 Saka; sloka 18.22-34.

8. Gaudiya Vaisnava Abhidhana Vol. 1, p.250

9. Caitanya Bhagavata 1.1.3, 12.10.59-60.

10. Tika of Caitanyacandramrta (31) by Anandi

The following are the astakas (eight lined hymns) composed in praise of Lord Caitanya:

Astaka by Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya;

Sacisutastaka by Narahari Sarkara;

Caitanyastaka by Rupa Gosvami;

Gaurasudhakaracitrastaka by Prabodhananda; Sacisunvastaka by Dasa Gosvami.

Caitanyastakam (1), by Rupa Gosvami;

Caitanyastakam (2), by Rupa Gosvami;

Caitanyastakam (3), by Rupa Gosvami;

Gaurangastakam, by Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya;

Gaura-Gadadhara-yugalastakam, by Acyutananda Gosvami (son of Advaitacarya);

Maha-prabhor-astakam, by Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura;

Sacinandanastakam, by Narahari-sarakara Thakura;

Sacinandana-vijayastakam, by Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura;

Sacisunvastakam, by Raghunatha-dasa Gosvami; (probably same as "DasaGosvami")Sacisutastakam, anonymous;

Sacitanayastakam, anonymous;

Astottarasatanama by Sarvabhauma;

Namadvadasaka; Namavimsatistotra by Sarvabhauma.
Sahasraka: one each by Narahari Sarkara, Kavikarnapura, and Rupa Gosvami.

Sri-gauranga-sahasra-nama-stotra, from Moksarnava-tantra, Siva to Gauri;

Sri-krsna-caitanya-candrasya sahasra-nama-stotra, by Sri-Caitanya-dasa Ciranjivi-sarvadhikari
Stava: Navadvipacandrastavaraja by Raghunandana Thakura;

Praty-anaga-varnanakhya-stavaraja by Advaita Prabhu;

Gaurangastavakalpataru by Raghunatha Dasa Gosvami.
Sataka: Caitanyasataka by Sarvabhauma;

Gaurasataka by Ratikanta Thakura.
Astakaliya sutra: Bhavadhyalila by Rupa Gosvami;

Paddhati 72-77 by Dhyanacandra Gosvami; Smaranamangala by Visvanatha Cakravarti;

and the Bengali work Gauracaritcintamani by Narahari Cakravarti.

Rupa Gosvami: sriman-maha-prabhor asta-kaliya-lila-smarana-mangala-stotram;Visvanatha C: sriman-maha-prabhor asta-kaliya-lila-smarana-mangala-stotram;
Sri-Gaura-premollasa-stotram, by Nanda-kisora Gosvami;

Sri-Gauranga-lila-smarana-mangala-stotram, by Bhaktivinoda Thakura;

Gauranga-stotram, by Sri Bhakti-desika Maharaja;

Gauranga-virudavali, by Raghunandana Gosvami;

Gaura-prema-stava-raja, by Ramaraya Gosvami;

Godruma-candra-bhajanopadesa, by Bhaktivinoda Thakura;



Books on Lord Caitanya:

In Bengali:

1. Sri Gaurasundara by Syamalal Gosvami

2. Amiya-Nimai-Carita by Sisir Kumar Ghosh

3. Caitanyadeva by Sundarananda Vidyavinoda

In Oriya:

1. Caitanyabhagavata of Isvara dasa

2. Caitanyavilasa of Madhava

In Vrajbasa:
1. Caitanyacaritamrta of Suvalasyama

In Hindi:

1. Amiya-Nimai-Carita

2. Caitanya Premasagara of Pandita Ramananda

3. Caitanya caritavali of Prabhudatta Brahmacari

In Gurmukhi:

1. Caitanyacarita

In Urdu:

1. Sri Nimaicand of Krsnaprasada Duggul

In Telugu:

1. Sri Caitanyalilamrtasaram

2. Sri Caitanyasiksamrtam

3. Lord Gauranga

In Tamil:
1. Life and Teaching of Gauranga by P.V. Pillai, Madras

In English:
1. Lord Gauranga by Sisirkumar Ghosh

2. Sri Krsna Caitanya by N.K. Sanyal

3. Lord Caitanya by B.P. Tirtha

4. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu B.P. Tirtha

5. Caitanya by G. Tucci

6. Life of Sri Caitanya by C.S. Trilokekar

7. Caitanya and His Companions by D.C. Sen

8. Gauranga and His Gospel by M. Dhar

9. The Universal Religion of Sri Caitanya by N.N. Chaterjee10. Caitanya's Pilgrimage and Teachings by J. Sarkar

The famous Siksastaka was composed by Lord Caitanya. The commentator Vitthalesvara states that Sri Krsna premamrta stotra was orally propounded by Lord Caitanya. Although a number of other small astakas are considered to have been composed by Lord Caitanya, the Lord Himself did not write any theological treatises. This task was taken up by Jiva Gosvami, who compiled a number of philosophical works such as Satsandarbha, Kramasandarbha, Sarvasamvadini, etc.

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